Foreword to the First Edition
A case of scientific misconduct that was widely discussed in public both in Ger-
many and abroad has led the Executive Board of the Deutsche Forschungsge-
meinschaft (DGF, German Research Foundation) to appoint an international
commission chaired by the President with the mandate,
to explore causes of dishonesty in the science system,
to discuss preventive measures,
to examine the existing mechanisms of professional self-regulation in science
and to make recommendations on how to safeguard them.
The commission had the following members:
Professor Dr. Ulrike Beisiegel, Department of Internal Medicine, Hamburg
Professor Dr. Johannes Dichgans, Department of Neurology, Tübingen Uni-
Professor Dr. Gerhard Ertl, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft,
Professor Dr. Siegfried Großmann, Department of Physics, Marburg Univer-
Professor Dr. Bernhard Hirt, Institut Suisse de Recherches Expérimentales
sur le Cancer, Epalinges s. Lausanne
Professor Dr. Claude Kordon, INSERM, U.159 Neuroendocrinologie, Paris
Professor Lennart Philipson, M.D., Ph.D., Skirball Institute of Biomolecular
Medicine, New York University, New York
Professor Dr. Eberhard Schmidt-Aßmann, Institute for German and Euro-
pean Administrative Law, Heidelberg University
Professor Dr. Wolf Singer, Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, Frank-
Professor Dr. Cornelius Weiss, Department of Chemistry, Leipzig University
Professor Dr. Sabine Werner, Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Martins­
Professor Dr. Björn H. Wiik, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY),
As the result of its deliberations, the commission puts forward the following rec-
ommendations, unanimously adopted on 9 December 1997. The accompany-
ing justification and commentary contain suggestions for their implementation.