Experiences outside Germany
medical and clinical research in its own units and awards grants for medical
research in universities. It expects both its own units and universities receiv-
ing grants to set up and publicise rules of conduct. Apart from the general
rules mentioned above, it has published guidelines for a variety of questions
in medical ethics, e. g. for research with persons unable to give informed
consent. The guidance and policy of the MRC have had a decisive influence
on a declaration of the European Medical Research Councils, a standing com-
mittee of the European Science Foundation, on the subject of “Misconduct in
Medical Research” (79).
In contrast to the Danish example, and in analogy to the USA, the MRC
expects allegations of scientific misconduct to be handled in the individual
institutions involved. Its “policy” (80) provides for a three-step procedure, in
which the first step is a formal confrontation of the defendant with the allega-
tions, giving him or her the opportunity to respond. The procedure is otherwise
analogous to the principles current in most American institutions. The scale of
sanctions includes the removal from the project in which misconduct was ob-
served, a “final written warning” and various other measures, with termination
of appointment in extreme cases. As in the USA, the MRC’s rules provide for an
Appeal Board which is appointed by the Executive Director of the MRC.